numbers some Emprical evidence on systematic difference between core and periphery industrial sectors”journal of business finance&Accounting
23. Beneish, M.D. (2001). “Earnings management: A perspective”, Managerial Finance 27(12): 3–17.‎
24. Dimitropoulos p .E. Asteriou D. (2008), “Thmeliness conservatism and financial transparent firms under the Greek accounting seting “Review of Accounting and Finance . Vol . 7 No . 3 .
25. Francisco Poveda Fuentes ,2009,’’ Long-run Abnormal Returns and Income Smoothing in the Spanish Stock Market. Critical Perspectives on Accounting 20, 591–613.
26. Healy, P. & Wahlen, J.M. (1999). “A review of the earnings management literature and its ‎implications for standard setting”, Accounting horizons 13: 143-147.‎
27. Hosmer, David W. Jr. and Stanley Lemeshow (1989). Applied Logistic Regression, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
28. Kennedy, P. (2003) Guide to Econometrics 5th edn., Blackwell, Malden, MA
29. Kutner, Nachtsheim, Neter, Applied Linear Regression Models, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2004.
. Nelson, Mark, J.A. Elliott, and R.L Tarply (2002). “Evidence from Auditors30
Revirw Supplement 2002, pp.175-202
31. Schipper, K. (1989). “Commentary on earnings management”, Accounting Horizons, ‎‎3(4): 91-102.‎
32.Watts R. (2003).,” Conservatism in accounting part I: explanation and implications”,. Accounting Horizons 17,.
33. Watts, R., Zimmerman, J. (1986). Positive Accounting Theory. Prentice-Hall Inc
پیوست ها
آماره های توصیفی
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 12:42
Sample: 1381 1390
CV_DI
CV_DS
EC
DQ
TM
VM
SIZE
DEBTR
AG
 Mean
 4.753806
 3.107071
 2.367576
 53.88646
 56.91133
 64.18302
 13.12974
 0.671011
 0.193660
 Median
 2.051498
 1.517757
 1.243823
 56.00000
 56.00000
 72.00000
 13.01850
 0.664940
 0.142687
 Maximum
 269.5842
 63.66221
 99.36577
 103.0000
 137.0000
 100.0000
 17.34109
 3.213072
 2.683997
 Minimum
-86.55112
-29.90072
-90.71428
-30.00000
-30.00000
 1.000000
 9.974831
 0.180282
-0.747491
 Std. Dev.
 30.76763
 9.973145
 14.33575
 25.28017
 29.12610
 26.60294
 1.311139
 0.241386
 0.307236
جدول ضرایب همبستگی پیرسون
Covariance Analysis: Ordinary
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 12:43
Sample (adjusted): 1382 1390
Included observations: 1248 after adjustments
Balanced sample (listwise missing value deletion)
Correlation
CV_DI 
CV_DS 
EC
DQ 
TM 
VM 
SIZE 
DEBTR 
AG 
CV_DI 
1.000000
CV_DS 
0.021613
1.000000
EC
0.726027
-0.018217
1.000000
DQ 
-0.003547
0.076455
-0.025447
1.000000
TM 
-0.002459
0.093034
-0.016204
0.947901
1.000000
VM 
-0.037594
-0.003764
-0.052080
0.077721
-0.109261
1.000000
SIZE 
0.021456
-0.133838
-0.010777
0.098143
0.082379
-0.014023
1.000000
DEBTR 
-0.015567
-0.048151
0.002629
-0.284019
-0.263196
-0.125467
-0.015599
1.000000
AG 
0.046036
0.006534
0.052903
-0.015756
-0.017340
0.103089
0.134209
-0.005715
1.000000
t-Statistic
CV_DI 
CV_DS 
EC
DQ 
TM 
VM 
SIZE 
DEBTR 
AG 
CV_DI 
—– 
CV_DS 
0.763105
—– 
IC 
37.26788
-0.643138
—– 
DQ 
-0.125189
2.706675
-0.898551
—– 
TM 
-0.086785
3.298296
-0.572059
105.0326
—– 
VM 
-1.327942
-0.132857
-1.840847
2.751791
-3.880002
—– 
SIZE 
0.757554
-4.767204
-0.380452
3.481143
2.917780
-0.495043
—– 
DEBTR 
-0.549555
-1.701632
0.092803
-10.45611
-9.630034
-4.464105
-0.550682
—– 
AG 
1.626748
0.230638
1.870042
-0.556249
-0.612168
3.658395
4.780654
-0.201727
—– 
Probability
CV_DI 
CV_DS 
EC
DQ 
TM 
VM 
SIZE 
DEBTR 
AG 
CV_DI 
—– 
CV_DS 
0.4455
—– 
EC
0.0000
0.5203
—– 
DQ 
0.9004
0.0069
0.3691
—– 
TM 
0.9309
0.0010
0.5674
0.0000
—– 
VM 
0.1844
0.8943
0.0659
0.0060
0.0001
—– 
SIZE 
0.4489
0.0000
0.7037
0.0005
0.0036
0.6207
—– 
DEBTR 
0.5827
0.0891
0.9261
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.5820
—– 
AG 
0.1040
0.8176
0.0617
0.5781
0.5405
0.0003
0.0000
0.8402
—– 
نمودار پراکندگی مشاهدات
نمودار توزیع فراوانی مشاهدات
نمودار چارک – چارک مشاهدات
نمودار همبستگی بین متغیرها
نتایج برآورد مدل (3-1) و آزمون های مربوطه
Dependent Variable: IS
Method: ML – Binary Logit (Quadratic hill climbing)
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 12:59
Sample (adjusted): 1382 1390
Included observations: 1516 after adjustments
Convergence achieved after 5 iterations
Covariance matrix computed using second derivatives
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
z-Statistic
Prob.  
C
0.629137
0.557956
1.127574
0.2595
DQ
-0.521856
0.210634
-2.477548
0.0132
SIZE
-0.084582
0.040314
-2.098072
0.0359
DEBTR
1.039338
0.236982
4.385725
0.0000
AG
-0.464670
0.167207
-2.779017
0.0055
McFadden R-squared
0.028037
    Mean dependent var
0.475594
S.D. dependent var
0.499569
    S.E. of regression
0.489908
Akaike info criterion
1.351707
    Sum squared resid
362.6543
Schwarz criterion
1.369265
    Log likelihood
-1019.594
Hannan-Quinn criter.
1.358244
    Deviance
2039.187
Restr. deviance
2098.009
    Restr. log likelihood
-1049.004
LR statistic
58.82155
    Avg. log likelihood
-0.672555
Prob(LR statistic)
0.000000
Obs with Dep=0
795
     Total obs
1516
Obs with Dep=1
721
Expectation-Prediction Evaluation for Binary Specification
Equation: EQ01
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 13:01
Success cutoff: C = 0.5
           Estimated Equation
           Constant Probability
Dep=0
Dep=1
Total
Dep=0
Dep=1
Total
P(Dep=1)=C
570
415
985
795
721
1516
P(Dep=1)C
225
306
531
Total
795
721
1516
795
721
1516
Correct
570
306
876
795
795
% Correct
71.70
42.44
57.78
100.00
0.00
52.44
% Incorrect
28.30
57.56
42.22
0.00
100.00
47.56
Total Gain*
-28.30
42.44
5.34
Percent Gain**
NA
42.44
11.23
Goodness-of-Fit Evaluation for Binary Specification
Andrews and Hosmer-Lemeshow Tests
Equation: EQ01
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 13:01
Grouping based upon predicted risk (randomize ties)
    Quantile of Risk
Dep=0
Dep=1
Total
H-L
Low
High
Actual
Expect
Actual
Expect
Obs
Value
1
0.1449
0.3649
99
101.975
52
49.0251
151
0.26731
2
0.3652
0.4024
107
93.3806
45
58.6194
152
5.15067
3
0.4029
0.4260
100
88.4236
51
62.5764
151
3.65719
4
0.4260
0.4474
79
85.5637
73
66.4363
152
1.15200
5
0.4475
0.4687
82
82.4873
70
69.5127
152
0.00629
6
0.4692
0.4887
68
78.6989
83
72.3011
151
3.03765
7
0.4888
0.5111
74
76.0777
78
75.9223
152
0.11360
8
0.5113
0.5404
78
71.7789
73
79.2211
151
1.02772
9
0.5405
0.5893
57
66.7452
95
85.2548
152
2.53682
10
0.5905
0.9531
51
49.8692
101
102.131
152
0.03816
Total
795
795.000
721
721.000
1516
16.9874
H-L Statistic
12.5013
Prob. Chi-Sq(8)
0.1302
Andrews Statistic
15.6404
Prob. Chi-Sq(10)
0.1104
Variance Inflation Factors
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 12:53
Sample: 1 2810
Included observations: 1516
Coefficient
Centered
Variable
Variance
VIF
C
 0.017775
 NA
DQ
 0.002558
 1.149974
SIZE
 9.33E-05
 1.036380
DEBTR
 0.002508
 1.139382
AG
 0.001504
 1.023677
نتایج برآورد مدل (3-2) و آزمون های مربوطه
Dependent Variable: IS
Method: ML – Binary Logit (Quadratic hill climbing)
Date: 08/01/13 Time: 13:03
Sample (adjusted): 1382 1390
Included observations: 1502 after adjustments
Convergence achieved after 5 iterations
Covariance matrix computed using second derivatives
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
z-Statistic
Prob.  
C
0.564674
0.560813
1.006886
0.3140
TM
-0.381277
0.187177
-2.036990
0.0417
SIZE
-0.084737
0.040459
-2.094379
0.0362
DEBTR
1.054354
0.234948
4.487602
0.0000
AG
-0.506601
0.170374
-2.973472
0.0029
McFadden R-squared
0.026443
    Mean dependent var
0.472037
S.D. dependent var
0.499384
    S.E. of regression
0.490303
Akaike info criterion
1.353247
    Sum squared resid
359.8749
Schwarz criterion
1.370939
    Log likelihood
-1011.289
Hannan-Quinn criter.
1.359838
    Deviance
2022.577
Restr. deviance
2077.514
    Restr. log likelihood
-1038.757
LR statistic
54.93649
    Avg. log likelihood
-0.673295
Prob(LR

دسته‌ها: No category

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

background